Category: <span>Viral Reference Materials</span>

The heterogenous group of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are biologics with frequently limited viral safety profiles. As compared to well-established biologics such as monoclonal antibody products, the risk of virus contamination is significantly higher for some ATMPs. The standard approaches and tools used to mitigate the viral risk have limitations, leaving open the chances of missing virus contamination in an ATMP manufacturing process in both upstream and downstream. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology can overcome the residual risk by having the potential to detect any kind of virus contamination based on its inherent capability to detect any kind of nucleic acid in a sample. It perfectly combines the benefits and compensates for the downsides of the existing testing tools. It will replace a bunch of different established testing methods at improved turnaround times and, in the end, reduced overall costs. The combination of these characteristics is making NGS-based virus testing an in-demand and preferred approach to mitigating the virus contamination risk across all kinds of biologics mid- and long-term.

Bioinformatics Biologics Production Cell & Gene Therapy Regulatory Risk Analysis and Management Viral Reference Materials Viral Vectors

Recombinant adeno-¬≠associated viral (rAAV) vectors have proven to be efficient vehicles for gene transfer in animal models. The attractive features of this vector system are long-term gene expression with little or no associated toxicities following administration to a variety of tissues. Previous and ongoing clinical trials in humans demonstrate a very good over-all safety profile. However, one of the caveats of this work that has been carried out by several ¬≠laboratories is the inability to normalize vector doses administered by different investigators to animals and humans. Most of the work to date has involved AAV serotype2 vectors, but vector systems based on other AAV ¬≠serotypes are being rapidly developed…

Viral Reference Materials Viral Vectors

The Lentiviral Vector Reference Working Group (LVRWG) was created at the conclusion of a meeting organized by The Williamsburg BioProcessing Foundation in June 2002, in conjunction with the American Society of Gene Therapy (ASGT) annual conference. The meeting participants were gathered to evaluate the need for developing reference material to ensure comparability of lentiviral and retroviral vectors, in a similar spirit to the Adenovirus Reference Material program that had just been completed. The concensus at the conclusion of this meeting was that the diversity in the lentiviral vector field, which includes vectors derived from different parental viruses and with various designs, does not allow for identification of a single reference material that would benefit more than a single or very few investigators…

Viral Reference Materials Viral Vectors

A prerequisite for producing medicinal products is ensuring their quality and safety. This requires appropriately controlled and standardised manufacture and testing procedures that result in consistent potency, safety, and efficacy. Assuring the quality and safety of gene therapy products in particular presents a great challenge because they are cell-based, multi-gene products which include viral and therapeutic proteins as well as modified cells. Although more than 860 gene transfer clinical trials are in progress and the first gene therapy product is already on the market (in China), the development of reference materials for gene therapy products is at an early stage with only a few accessible reference materials. Standardisation of gene therapy products to ensure their quality and safety is clearly necessary and has become increasingly important. Standardisation and other issues specifically related to gene therapy products are discussed in this article…

Cell & Gene Therapy Viral Reference Materials

The Adenovirus Reference Material Working Group (ARMWG) oversaw development of an adenovirus reference material (ARM) with the intent to provide a way to standardize assay measurements from different laboratories. The ARM, which was manufactured in stages by various organizations including Canji (San Diego, CA) and Introgen Therapeutics (Houston, TX), is available from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Upon completion of its manufacture, the characterization phase primarily defined viral particle concentration as well as infectious titer for this product. However, many other concurrent characterization studies were conducted including an assessment of vector purity (e.g., host cell DNA, host cell protein, reversed-phase HPLC), a short-term field use and shipping stability study, and a long-term stability study. Also included in these studies was a coordinated effort to determine the complete DNA sequence of the ARM vector genome…

Nucleic Acids Viral Reference Materials Viral Vectors

Through the tremendous efforts of the Adenovirus Reference Material Working Group (ARMWG), an adenovirus reference material (ARM) is now available from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The history and progress of the ARM production and characterization has been presented at many meetings and published in numerous journal articles. Although general statements have been made regarding how the ARM should be used, there is no formal directive or specific set of instructions detailing its application in the field. The goals of this paper are (1) to briefly review the objectives for development and implementation of the ARM, (2) to describe a critical assumption necessary to meet those objectives, (3) to outline specific approaches for using the ARM, and (4) to highlight the need for a working group to address the issues raised in the process…

Viral Reference Materials

With the continued progress of adenoviral vectors in gene therapy studies it is increasingly evident that a more formalized approach to the characterization and analysis of these viral vectors is urgently needed. Today, adenoviral vectors are beginning to be considered “well characterized biologics,” as shown by numerous publications describing sophisticated analytical approaches for recombinant adenovirus product candidates. Because the analytical definitions of adenoviral vectors currently lack comparison to a common standard, the problem for regulatory agencies is how to objectively evaluate safety in relation to the administered dose. This well-recognized need for an adenovirus standard has been addressed by a consortium of representatives from regulatory agencies, industry, and academic organizations ‚ÄĒ the Adenoviral Reference Material (ARM) Working Group. Its work has come to fruition in the recent public availability of the ARM, a purified wild type 5 adenovirus. Many aspects of the history, production, and characterization of the ARM have been published in detail…

Regulatory Viral Reference Materials Viral Vectors

As advanced analytical techniques become more widely used for product testing, and as more biological products become better characterized, the expectations increase that all biological products will become well characterized. Certainly, the trend is for all regulated products to become better characterized, and for a growing set of analytical methods to attain common usage. As more data is presented in regulatory submissions and reviews, similar data is expected, or desired, in most future product submissions. Furthermore, the techniques being used are opening additional avenues of product testing that regulators may want to see, or that the larger companies could establish as commonly accepted practice…

Regulatory Viral Reference Materials

As development proceeds for adenoviral vectors in gene transfer clinical trials, it becomes increasingly important that these products demonstrate a good safety profile, and thereby build confidence in those who must make decisions about risk/benefit ratios, dose escalation, and efficacy. Currently, safety and efficacy are based predominantly upon the analysis of data generated by non-standardized methods, resulting in inconsistent values being reported for virus titer and particle counts…

Risk Analysis and Management Viral Reference Materials

The Adenovirus Reference Material (ARM) was developed under the guidance of the Adenovirus Reference Material Working Group (ARMWG) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and was made possible through the donation of services and supplies by a large number of laboratories and institutions from the United States, Canada, France, The Netherlands, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The purpose of the ARM is to provide a reference material for use in validating assays and internal standards for adenoviral particle concentration and infectious titer. The NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee recommended the development of such a reference-testing agent in their report issued January 2002. The ARM consists of purified wild type 5 Adenovirus as described by ATCC’s catalog number VR-5…

Viral Reference Materials