Tag: <span>facility design</span>

‚ÄúClosed system.‚ÄĚ The term itself appears deceptively simple. However, the definition of a closed system, its implementation, and its impact on biomanufacturing has been anything but straightforward.

The journey toward implementing closed systems spans over 20 years. The concept of closed systems was introduced in January 2000 with the draft issue of ICH Q7. Since then, other industry guidance documents emerged, defining and supporting process/system closure as a primary means of risk mitigation to meet the baseline requirement of protecting the product, as defined in cGMP.

Presently, global regulatory agencies recognize three distinct definitions of a closed system. These definitions, found in EU Annex 1, EU Annex 2, and the PIC Annex 2A, all focus on product protection where the product is not exposed to the immediate room environment during manufacturing. This is where the journey begins.

Manufacturing Risk Analysis and Management

A basic engineering study has been performed to evaluate three different strategies for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cells are expanded in suspension culture and are then inoculated into either fed batch or perfusion culture for MAb production. The first strategy, which is also the current industry standard, uses fed batch culture with the cells in suspension in a stirred tank fermenter. The second strategy uses perfusion culture with the cells immobilized on Cytopore‚ĄĘ microcarriers in a stirred tank fermenter. The third and final strategy is perfusion culture with Cytoline‚ĄĘ microcarriers in a fluidized bed fermenter. Perfusion cultures, while leading to a somewhat lower product titer, were characterized by a much smaller equipment footprint. This in turn led to a >30% reduction in investment costs and a 12% reduction in MAb production costs calculated over five years of depreciation and ten years of production time‚Ķ

Manufacturing

Building a MAb bioprocessing plant is a process which normally takes three years. Before starting the engineering work, a ‚Äúlocked‚ÄĚ process is ¬≠necessary. This means that all the steps have to be defined by volume, time, material balances and product yield. These calculations are based on the results obtained during process development. The titer and yield of functional, recoverable product determines the plant size. Optimal volumetric ¬≠productivity [g/(liter reactor volume * day)] is of utmost importance. The main difference between fed batch and perfusion culture is that in the fed batch, a centrifuge is required for cell removal, whereas in perfusion culture, cell removal is performed by dead end filtration. This is possible because the majority of the cells are immobilised on the microcarriers, thus minimizing the burden on the clarification unit‚Ķ

Manufacturing

In order to move product development forward, the majority of biotech companies and academic institutions involved in cell-based therapies need new facilities in order to scale up production capabilities and comply with evolving regulatory requirements. Some institutions choose to use a contract manufacturing organization (CMO) to benefit from established expertise while others support their clinical development programs with their own dedicated production facility. The main challenges in establishing a dedicated pilot-scale production facility are described hereafter…

Manufacturing Regulatory

Key questions for any company planning to build a new facility include processes to be followed for effective design, commissioning, and qualification. Pilot plants need to be flexible, but as flexibility increases, so does complexity and cost. The scope of the new clinical trial pilot plant for bioprocess operations at Eli Lilly and Company (K360) was based on specific technology platforms and extensive benchmarking. Global regulatory issues had to be considered in the design as well because the material it produces will be used worldwide. The K360 plant has the capability to produce mammalian, bacterial, and yeast-based protein and peptide products following typical processes for growth in bioreactors. The protein or peptide of interest is recovered following fermentation and then purified in the facility. The plant’s output is bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)…

Manufacturing

In the last few years, we have seen many biotech products approved by FDA. These products have gained public awareness because of their ability to treat several debilitating diseases with very minimal side effects, and thereby impact the quality of life for many people. As a result, the biotech industry is constantly in the news for its successes and programs to develop new therapeutics for many unmet medical needs. Immunomedics, Inc., a New Jersey biotechnology company, recently completed an expansion project that included new bioreactor manufacturing suites and support laboratories. Building on the company’s existing headquarters site and fully integrating the new capacity into the existing operational facility, the project spanned two years and was completed in 2003…

Manufacturing

The Dale and Betty Bumpers Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) was established to facilitate research in vaccine development. The VRC is dedicated to improving global human health through the rigorous pursuit of effective vaccines for human diseases. It was established by former president Bill Clinton as part of an initiative to help develop an AIDS vaccine and is part of the NIAID organization. Since the inception of the VRC, its mission has expanded to include the development of vaccines against bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases…

Research

One of the fundamental foundations of bioprocess system design is the use of ‚Äúclosed‚ÄĚ systems for production. Closed systems and equipment are utilized to prevent contamination of the product. They are also used as a means of containment to protect not only the product, but also workers and the facility environment. The concept of a closed processing system makes common sense. What is surprising is how closed systems are defined and referenced within the body of regulatory guidance documents and how companies differ in their implementation of a ‚Äúclosed manufacturing‚ÄĚ concept. What is not surprising is the impact that closed systems have on facility design…

Manufacturing Risk Analysis and Management

It has been reported that the biotechnology-derived medicines area of the pharmaceutical industry led to 133 marketed entities with sales of $22 billion by the year 2001. By 2002, the therapeutic protein market had reached $32 billion, with biologics representing more than 50 percent of all drugs approved by FDA ‚ÄĒ up from a modest 16 percent in 1995. The biopharmaceutical market is predicted to grow to $50 billion by 2008. Currently, approximately 40 percent of biopharmaceutical products are in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. It is anticipated that from 2003 to 2008 there will be a more than 45-fold increase in demand for access to product development facilities capable of supplying clinical material…

Manufacturing

The Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) are becoming more and more familiar in biotechnology, and concepts such as quality assurance or validation are now part of the background of clinicians and researchers involved in clinical trials. A recent European Community directive (2001/20/CE) states that GMPs should also be applied to investigational medicinal products and not only to products on the market. Vector supernatant is a so-called Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and is subject to the same guidelines as traditional drugs produced by the pharmaceutical industry. This has a deep impact in the field of gene therapy because clinical trials are often run by small biotech companies or, at least in the first phases, by academic centers. The field is continuously developing and, according to the progress of the clinical studies, new processes are necessary to produce large-scale amounts of vector supernatant in a safe and reproducible way…

Manufacturing Viral Vectors