Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Synthesis for Use in Human Diabetes Treatment

by Archana Gangakhedkar and Jyothi Thundimadathil
Volume 14, Issue 3 (Fall 2015)

Type 2 diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. There are several therapies for type 2 diabetes management, but optimal glycemic control has not been achieved yet. A large number of patients fail to attain an ideal glycemic target, and only a few drugs have demonstrated effective control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) numbers below 7%. The biggest hurdles for implementing long-term, effective therapies are hypoglycemia and weight gain. Most pharmaceuticals currently available act to increase insulin availability through administration, secretion, or by increasing insulin sensitivity. Others act by delaying the delivery and absorption of carbohydrates from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Recent advances in type 2 diabetes management include the clinical development of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. GLP-1 belongs to the hormonal family of incretins that enhance the secretion of insulin. Incretins lower blood glucose levels by stimulating pancreatic beta cells to release increased amounts of insulin. The two primary incretin hormones are GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide. Both GLP-1 and GIP are rapidly cleaved by DPP-4. GLP-1 is a product of a precursor molecule called pre-proglucagon, a polypeptide which is split to produce many hormones including glucagon. As they have the same origin, these hormones share some similarities, and hence the name “glucagon-like”...

Citation:
Gangakhedkar A, Thundimadathil J. Glucagon-like peptide 1 synthesis for use in human diabetes treatment. BioProcess J, 2015; 14(3): 13–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.12665/J143.Gangakhedkar.

Posted online October 9, 2015.